GPG key error updating aptitude, Debian upgrade
I had an old Debian Etch machine which I did not upgrade for some time, and when I attempted to install ghostscript by using Synaptic, I've got some unmet dependencies errors with libc6 and libc6-dev. Any attempt to reinstall or upgrade these packages failed, so I decided to try to upgrade the whole system to Lenny:
- I replaced
#sudo aptitude update
But I've got this error: The error can be solved downloading the GPG signatures with these commands:
#gpg --keyserver keyserver.ubuntu.com --recv xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
#gpg --export --armor xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx | apt-key add -
I've tried a few servers (subkeys.pgp.net, keyserver.pgp.com, wwwkeys.eu.pgp.net) but they could not find the "right" keys...
Then I did the
#sudo aptitude updateagain.
#sudo aptitude install apt dpkg aptitude
#sudo aptitude full-upgrade
Google Update is a tool that Google installs on a pc when some other Google software is installed, and runs each time Windows starts; it's supposed to update Google software, but a comprehensive description can be found on this blog.
I tagged this article as spyware, because Wikipedia defines it as
Point 4 of Google Earth License Agreement recites:
So, Google Update is certainly installed surreptitiously because while regular software setups show the components that will be installed, the Google Update application is never mentioned during Google Earth setup, and the only mention of something vaguely resemblant to Google Update behaviour is in the License Agreement, that's a good place where to put information which you want that nobody reads: I firmly believe there is no informed consent about Google Update installation. Moreover, it appears that Google collects information about Google software usage through Google Update, still without informed consent (usage information collection is not mentioned in License Agreement either).
So, Google Update is a spyware.
How to get rid of Google Update
- First, kill it by the Task Manager
- Google says it's listed amongst windows applications and in the start menu, where it should be possible to uninstall it, but that was not true on my system
- remove or disable the
GoogleUpdateTaskMachinescheduled task from Control panel, Scheduled Tasks
services.mscand disable the
Google Update Service
- if you use Firefox, go to Tools, Add-ons, Plugins and disable
Google Update(or remove it; maybe if you want to play with the registry, this is its placement:
- finally, if you want to remove it "physically" (metaphorically speaking), you can find the exe in
C:\Program Files\Google\Update\and its subfolders
Once I disabled the scheduled task, the service and Firefox plugin, googleupdate.exe was never launched anymore, neither after launching Google Earth. I'll see if the Google spyware will reappear when I will update Google Earth manually (when a new version will be available).
I hope this helps, and if you still can't get rid of it using these methods, or if you find other places Google Update is hidden, please let me know. I'm curious how deep Google decided to fall.
How to mount an image file and access image content
To get access to the content of a virtual machine image or a ISO file, follow these steps:
- associate the file with a loop device node:
# losetup /dev/loop0 /var/otheros.img
- list the partition table of the device:
# fdisk -l /dev/loop0 Disk /dev/loop0: 21.4 GB, 21474837504 bytes 255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 2610 cylinders Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System /dev/loop0p1 * 1 2609 20956761 7 HPFS/NTFS
- create device map (
kpartxis part of
multipath-toolspackage on Ubuntu):
# kpartx -a /dev/loop0 # ls -l /dev/mapper/ total 0 crw-rw---- 1 root root 10, 62 Jul 6 2008 control brw-rw---- 1 root disk 253, 0 Jul 5 23:18 loop0p1
- mount the device partition:
# mount /dev/mapper/loop0p1 /mnt
Running Windows XP in Xen from its own partition
Some months ago I made some experiments with Xen and I succeeded to install and run Windows XP as a guest using Xen 3.0. In that case Windows was located in a single file and was installed through Xen. My purpose now is to make Xen running an already installed Windows from its own partition. Just to be more specific, this is my machine configuration:
- Ubuntu Dapper Drake 6.06 is located on a SATA disk, set as first boot disk
- Windows XP is located on a EIDE disk, set as second boot disk
- Dual boot is made by grub
I am coming from a bloody week of wrestling against packages, bugs and "make world"s trying to run Xen in Ubuntu 6.06 amd64 on an AM2 3800+ and to make a Windows XP Pro domU.
I searched on the web some resources that would explain how to run Windows on Xen and I found some very good tutorial that unfortunately don't fit exactly my configuration and my purpose. These are the sites I took as a basis for my setup:
- dom0 = Debian Sarge 3.1, domU = Debian Sarge, Xen 2.0.7 32 bit installed from binaries or source, paravirtualization
- dom0 = SUSE 10.1, domU = Win XP Pro, Xen 3.0.2, Intel VT hardware virtualization
- dom0 = Ubuntu 6.06, domU = Ubuntu, Xen 3.0.1 32 bit
- dom0 = Kubuntu Dapper Drake, domU = Win XP, Xen 3.0.2-2 32 bit, AMD SVM hardware virtualization
These are all the steps I did and the problems I encountered during this Calvary :-) (I come from Windows with a little linux/unix background):
Recover "Logical sector size is 0" with dd
A few hours ago while I was using my pc suddenly Windows froze completely (mouse was stuck and Ctrl+Alt+Del did nothing). It's not astonishing but I was quite surprised because such a freeze never happened since I began using Windows XP on my new pc.
The problem appeared at the reboot:
grub, the bootloader on /dev/sda, showed this error message:
At reboot I started Windows XP Recovery Console from the Windows CD and tried
CHKDSK.EXE, and this was the outcome:
I booted again linux to launch
fsckand see it fail:
Then I found the solution in ubuntu forum:
root@am2:/home/z24# dd if=/dev/hda1 of=/defmedia/bkup_fat32_hda1.img bs=512 count=2048000 conv=noerror,sync 2048000+0 records in 2048000+0 records out 1048576000 bytes (1.0 GB) copied, 43.61 seconds, 24.0 MB/s root@am2:/home/z24# dd if=/defmedia/bkup_fat32_hda1.img of=/home/z24/sector6.bin bs=512 count=1 skip=6 conv=noerror,sync 1+0 records in 1+0 records out 512 bytes (512 B) copied, 0.011544 seconds, 44.4 kB/s root@am2:/home/z24# dd if=/home/z24/sector6.bin of=/dev/hda1 bs=512 count=1 conv=noerror,sync,notrunc 1+0 records in 1+0 records out 512 bytes (512 B) copied, 0.030644 seconds, 16.7 kB/sExplanation:
- the first dd makes a backup of the first gigabyte of the Windows partition: I copied 1 GB only because I didn't have enough space on a ext2fs to backup all the 28 GB of /dev/hda1.
- the second dd extracts the sixth sector to a temporary file: as reported by Microsoft KB247575, "The backup FAT32 boot sector is located at sector 6 of the logical drive".
- the third
ddcopies the extracted sector 6 to sector 0 of /dev/hda1.
ddwas also checked with
mount. Thanks a lot to the ubuntuforums user Onlymee for his post!
Update 13.09.2008The same problem happened again today and gave me the opportunity to complete the series of error messages :)
The first, at boot time, was the same: Mounting the partition (
mount -t vfat /dev/sda1 /mnt):
dmesg | grep sda1But
fdisk -l /dev/sdashows the partition table.
fsck.vfat /dev/sda1(executed from Ubuntu 8.04 alternate cd) The solution was exactly the same: copy the sixth sector back to the first. And voilà, it booted.
Debian on Windows with VMWare, Linux applications in Windows using X server
With this little and very simple tutorial I will explain what I did to:
- install VMWare for Windows
- run Debian virtual appliance
- connect from Windows host to Linux guest and connect from Linux guest to Windows host
- run seamless Linux applications in the Windows graphical environment using an X server
Ubuntu 6.06 Dapper Drake 32 bit on Windows XP with Qemu, Qemu networking, Linux applications in Windows using X server
With this little tutorial I will explain what I did to:
- install Qemu and its accelerator kqemu
- create an image file where the guest operating system will be installed
- install and then run Ubuntu 6.06 Dapper Drake 32 bit as a guest operating system
- connect from Windows host to Linux guest with qemu
- connect from Windows host to Linux guest and connect from Linux guest to Windows host using tap driver
- run seamless Linux applications in the Windows graphical environment using an X server
Install and boot Windows on a second hard disk
I have a SATA disk and a EIDE disk, I installed Linux on the SATA disk and now I want to install Windows on the EIDE disk.
Because Windows must be installed on the disk that boot first, I entered BIOS and changed the boot order as this:
Then I installed Windows on the EIDE disk.
I want to configure dual boot this way:
- default choice: Linux (booting from SATA disk)
- second choice: Windows (booting from EIDE disk)
/boot/grub/menu.list(on Ubuntu or Debian; if grub is not installed try apt-get install grub):
title WinXP map (hd0,0) (hd1,0) map (hd1,0) (hd0,0) rootnoverify (hd1,0) chainloader +1That means Windows believes the EIDE disk is the first and SATA is the second, so it's happy and if I reboot and choose WinXP from grub menu it starts.
Execute a command at shutdown
To dismount TrueCrypt volumes at shutdown and reboot time, I created a script, put it in
/etc/init.d/ and symlinked it into the needed
/etc/rc?.d/ directories using
Here is the detail:
Pausing a command
How to pause / suspend / sleep a running command in a terminal?
How to resume the paused command?
How to rename multiple files from bash
Rename all *html files to *test:
for x in `ls *html`; do mv $x `echo $x | sed -e "s/html/test/"`; done
for var in some-list ; do command ; done